No 12: Winter Solstice

Mind Mirror Measurements at the Levi Labyrinth
by Stephen Bosbach

This is the view of the
Levi labyrinth from
the southwest

It was my good fortune to be able to borrow a "Mind Mirror" dual electroencephalograph back in the Spring of 1997 to compare brain wave patterns among dowsers. At a past meeting of the Armadillo Chapter of ASD American Society of Dowsers), we scheduled an experiment to measure brain wave patterns among a mixed group of individuals before and after walking a classical seven path Cretan labyrinth approximately 60 feet in diameter. The property is located on a bluff above a spring fed creek with one of the oldest Native American archeological sites in North America, the Levi Site, dating from 10,000 years ago. The Levi Labyrinth is on the property of Nick Denner, outside Austin, Texas. Nick is a dowser himself, and a designer and builder who organizes the Sustainable Building Conference each year in Austin. I dowsed his property for water and geopathic energy before his home was built on this property. It was then that the beneficial energy zones were also outlined and uses for them began to take shape.

The Labyrinth

One of these zones was a water dome that neatly fit into a clearing of trees on his property. Nick immediately suggested a labyrinth might fit. At first he envisioned a more complex labyrinth like the Chartes Labyrinth, but dowsing consistently brought him back to the simple left-handed seven path Classical Labyrinth. In the end this seemed to work the best, as the path is wide and easy for people to pass each other in opposite directions and is also wide enough for wheelchair access, which has been done at least once. The property is typical Texas hill country and very rocky. Rock between the size of our head and the size of a suitcase were man-handled by a dedicated group of friends over several days to build the Levi Labyrinth. Just by coincidence, larger than average stones were placed so that they marked the NE-SW energy line alignment, and I suggested we continue this design statement with large stones extending across the labyrinth and out to the entry. Completely after the fact, we found that this alignment also coincided with the Summer Solstice Sunrise.

The Mind Mirror

Our chapter has been able to conduct a very limited experiment using the Mind Mirror to evaluate the dowsing state. We tested both experienced dowsers and individuals that were just beginners at dowsing. Previous experiments measuring the brain wave patterns of dowsers have been done exclusively with experienced, successful dowsers. I wanted a result that tested the dowsing technique more than the individual differences between dowsers, so we used a sample of individuals that had a broad cross section of dowsing experience.

What we found was somewhat different from previously reported studies. We saw a significant and consistent shift in brain wave patterns to a right brain dominance. We were expecting a more balanced brain wave pattern, as was reported in the literature, so there was little chance of our anticipation of results affecting this outcome. We also took precautions to prevent the subjects from viewing their own output to prevent biofeedback from affecting the results. A brief caveat before continuing. Getting set up for testing with the mind mirror is not a simple task and the results are prone to error. Patterns change very quickly on the Mind Mirror LCD display and it is necessary to average readings and watch for a consistent trend within a trial.

Excessive muscle movement or eye motion can also introduce error into the readings. The LCD readout on the Mind Mirror supposedly can be exported to a DOS based computer, but I was never able to get the program to work with my lap top. This would have permitted both a better display and a continuous record of the entire session. Without that option, I photographed samples of individual's results and averaged each one. This leaves much more room for error I admit, but efforts were made to choose representative snapshots of each subject's patterns. Also, the electrodes on the headband must be smeared with a conductive jell and the hair on the individual must be moved out of the way so contact can be made with the scalp. This is messy and time consuming, especially for those with long hair! A test sequence is then run so conduction with all electrodes can be verified.

The Test

In five subjects tested, two men and three women, four out of five had a significant right dominance brain wave shift following a single walk through the Levi Labyrinth. Measurements were made at a resting pulse rate before walking the labyrinth and again after walking the labyrinth when pulse rate had returned to a resting rate. All trials were run at 10 microvolt sensitivity, even though some individuals had a higher normal amplitude than others, so direct comparisons could be made between individuals. A general higher amplitude for all subjects for both before and after trials at the Delta wavelength is being attributed to machine induced error.

Before After
The Mind Mirror - Before
walking the labyrinth
The Mind Mirror - After
walking the labyrinth

The Results

Brain wave amplitude changes in each hemisphere at the Beta, Alpha, Theta frequencies were not consistent enough to be considered a significant result of the experiment. Some individuals did show significant increases in Alpha and Theta amplitude, but this was not consistent across subjects. What was significant was the shift in general activity from left to right hemispheres. Only one of our subjects showed little shift in hemisphere activity, while the other four varied from a four fold to a ten fold increase in right brain activity, some going completely off the scale of the display!

This is the view of the Levi
labyrinth from the northeast.

I believe this to be the first time the effects of the labyrinth have been studied by examining brain wave output. The results obtained in this admittedly abbreviated experiment point to definite changes taking place in the brain wave output of individuals that use the labyrinth form. This leads into more questions about what effects will be seen with multiple trips through the labyrinth form, longer term changes to baseline wave forms from consistent use of the labyrinth form and differences in brain wave output among subjects by age and other differences. I hope these preliminary results spur further research into what is really happening when we take ourselves through the labyrinth.

Issue No. 11 >>

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Dowsing In Sacred Space:
The New Realities
Sig Lonegren

Alfred Watkins

Alfred Watkins The modern history of dowsing in sacred space begins with two men: Reginald Allender Smith, Keeper of the British and Egyptian Antiquities for the British Museum, and Alfred Watkins, inventor, miller, and lover of his Herefordshire countryside. Both were British, and did much of their work in the first forty years of this century. Allender Smith's major contribution to dowsing in sacred space came with his discovery that there was water under all of the Neolithic (New Stone Age) British sacred sites. Watkins was the rediscoverer of the leys - alignments of ancient holy sites that criss-crossed the landscape.

As far as I have traced it, it was Healer Bruce MacManaway (Patrick's father), who combined these two - water and the energy that sometimes flows along the leys. Kate and John Paine and Terry Ross brought these ideas of primary water and dowseable leys to the US, where I first learned about them in the early nineteen-seventies. Terry was one of my mentors for my Master's Degree in Sacred Space in 1978. He taught me to find at bigger sacred spaces - a dome of water with an odd number of veins flowing away from it that exited the sacred space at significant points (at the corner of a stone, or the corner or mouth of a chamber, etc.). And there were (usually) one or more straight lines of energy crossing over the circular dome of water.


As far as I have traced it, it was Healer Bruce MacManaway (Patrick's father), who combined these two - water and the energy that sometimes flows along the leys. Kate and John Paine and Terry Ross brought these ideas of primary water and dowseable leys to the US, where I first learned about them in the early nineteen-seventies. Terry was one of my mentors for my Master's Degree in Sacred Space in 1978. He taught me to find at bigger sacred spaces - a dome of water with an odd number of veins flowing away from it that exited the sacred space at significant points (at the corner of a stone, or the corner or mouth of a chamber, etc.). And there were (usually) one or more straight lines of energy crossing over the circular dome of water.

Terry Ross
Terry Ross dowsing at Calendar II
Notice his eyes. They always have
that faraway look when he is working.

At John Michell's request, I began to call these straight lines "energy leys" because I found that they were not always running concurrently with the leys, alignments of holy sites. (There are, of course, variations to this pattern, but the primary water and energy leys are the two essential ingredients.) Up until the early nineteen-eighties, I remained confident that this was a pattern that everyone should find at a sacred space.

The ASD/NEARA Earth Mysteries Group

In the last thirty years, more and more people have heard about a number of enigmatic underground, dry stone-walled chambers that are found throughout much of New England. In the early eighties, the ASD/NEARA (New England Antiquities Research Association) Earth Mysteries Group (EMG) visited about forty of these chambers and found that forty percent of them were oriented toward a significant solar event (Solstices, Equinoxes or Cross-Quarter Days), were constructed using sacred geometrical principals, and were located over Earth Energy Power centers. These are true sacred spaces.

I assumed that I could teach all of the volunteers who generously donated their time to that ASD/NEARA EMG project to dowse the same things at sacred space. Some, like Inge Brown, were remarkably successful at finding what I found. Others weren't. At first I thought it had to do with dowsing skill. If I could only make the others better dowsers! It didn't work, at the end of the project, they still found different things! So I usually relied on Inge's confirmation of what I had dowsed even though others had not found what I was finding.

Inge Brown
Inge Brown takes some measurements for
the ASD/NEARA Earth Mysteries Group in Calendar II

In the late eighties, while it didn't feel like it at the time, Paul Devereux, then Editor of "The Ley Hunter Magazine," really did us a favor with his virulent attacks on dowsers not finding the same things in sacred space. Paul needed tools that would convince science that there really was something to these Earth Energies, and dowsing wasn't consistent enough, in fact, it wasn't consistent at all. It's true. We don't all find the same things. It was as result of those confrontations that I first developed and began talking about what I call "Sig's Hypothesis Number One: Even if they had the same teacher, it is quite probable that no two dowsers will ever find the same thing when dowsing in sacred space."

Change Of Scene

One of the forms of divination I have been working with since the beginning of the nineteen-nineties is daysigns. If dreams are nightsigns, daysigns are noticeable events that happen during the day that one can interpret using the similar skills one employs when working with dreams. Let's say I am walking along a road thinking about a goal I have for a project I am working on, when an owl swoops towards me coming from the West. For me, and owl (Athena's bird who spoke in her ear) means wisdom - the wise old owl, and West is the direction of the path of the Sun, Moon and stars, so, among other things, West has to do with goals. The daysign for me means, "The goal I was thinking about when the Owl swooped by from the West is a wise one. Go for it!" Unfortunately, that daysign doesn't have that same meaning for everyone. Many Native Americans feel that an owl is a very unlucky omen, so it would carry a different meaning for them than it does for me. Daysigns must be interpreted by the individual who perceives them.


Remember as a kid looking at clouds in the sky or at pine knots in a wall and seeing horses, dragons, and other animals? John Michell shows in his wonderful book, "Simulacra," that natural likenesses can be frequently found at sacred places. Simulacra can be interpreted using the same tools as for daysigns. And once again, like beauty, the interpretation is in the eye of the beholder.

The Glastonbury Tor 3-D Labyrinth

Glastonbury Tor
The paths of the labyrinth on the Tor.
Photo by Kevin Redpath

I am living in Glastonbury, England, an ancient site of pilgrimage for the Celts, for the earliest Christians who came to Britain, and today, for those who seek an alternative spiritual vision. It is a magical town with a number of very special places of power. The most obvious is the Glastonbury Tor, a terraced natural hill with a tower on top that dominates the countryside. In 1968, Geoffrey Russell put forth the theory that there was a three-dimensional Classical Seven Circuit Labyrinth superimposed on the Tor that one could actually walk to get to the tower on top. Arthurian scholar, Geoffrey Ashe, Dramatist and Representative of the Goddess, Kathy Jones, and author and geomancer, Nicholas Mann have all written about this 3-D labyrinth on the Tor. I walked it with Kathy in the eighties. In 1991, I wrote a book about these magical single-path divinatory tools, "Labyrinths: Ancient Myths & Modern Uses". My publisher, Gothic Image Publications, is in Glastonbury. I forgot to even mention the 3-D Glastonbury Tor Labyrinth! How could that be? Yes I've walked it. Yes, I have listened to others who have seen it. While I can work it out in the contour lines, I'm not 100% sure that I really "see" it. If you see it, it's there, if you don't, it isn't. I would say that I am about 80% convinced.

The Glastonbury Zodiac

Then there's the Glastonbury Zodiac. In the 1920's Katherine Maltwood was looking for evidence about where King Arthur's Twelve Knights of the Round Table had gone on their quests. She found, by looking at maps and the recently available aerial photographs, enormous signs of the Zodiac formed by rivers, old roads and hedge rows, steep contours and other features in the landscape. They were in the correct order, going around in a circle! Glastonbury is in Aquarius. Wearyall Hill is the hill where Joseph of Arimathea rested his feet when he first arrived in the Isles of Glass to survey the other islands; the place where his Jerusalem Thorn staff took root (a scion of that tree still grows there). When viewed from the top of the Tor, Wearyall Hill looks like a salmon leaping away from you. The Holy Thorn is in the crotch of the tail of the fish. Do you know what part of the body Pisces (the fishes) rules? The feet. The other fish of Pisces is in the town of Street, and in it is the Clark Shoes Factory, the largest manufacturer of footwear in Britain! Coincidence.

For me, both the Tor labyrinth and the Maltwood Figures are like enormous Rorschach/ink blot tests. What you see is what you see, and if you see the zodiacal figures, you see them. If you see the labyrinth, it's there. If you don't… That's ok too.

Back To Dowsing

Recently, I had the honour of being elected to be on the Committee of the British Society of Dowsers' Earth Energies Group headed by Billy Gawn, a fine dowser from Northern Ireland. At our 1998 Autumn meeting where we discussed geopathic stress, I was amazed to see and hear a general agreement that different dowsers do indeed find different things when dowsing for intangible targets. The morning address given by scientist Dr. Anthony Scofield made it clear that this was his finding, and while we could work together on different tasks that our workshop presenters gave us in the afternoon, we all did see what was there energetically rather differently.

The implications for this are enormous. First is the total lack of repeatability, so essential to science. Second is the incredibly bewildering question each of us as dowsers must face when we get in to the Earth Energies and dowsing in sacred space, "Why didn't I find it where my teacher found it?" Different people look for domes and energy leys, vortexes, Curry and Hartmann Grids, Michael and Mary Lines, etc. With intangible targets, where's the confirmation if everyone finds something different?

The answer perhaps lies in the use to which you are employing dowsing. When one uses dowsing for physical objects like finding treasure, that's using it as a physical tool, but when you dowse in sacred space, you are using dowsing as a spiritual tool that can assist you on your spiritual path. If you see yourself as a pilgrim on a life long spiritual path, dowsing can assist your journey regardless of the particular path you have chosen. On the spiritual path, each of us perceives it slightly differently. Is it a surprise that in dowsing, the same thing is true? What we find depends on things like our individual level of consciousness, and what our teacher has taught us to see (even if we don't see it exactly the same as s/he does). Is it any wonder that there are so many Protestant denominations? Everyone sees it slightly differently!

The New Realities

The question then becomes, "How can we prepare our students that we are teaching to dowse in sacred space?" I'd recommend a few things:

  1. Forget trying to convince science that this kind of dowsing is "real." Do you know anyone who is growing spiritually who puts much energy in to this one? Can science ever prove that God/dess exists? When used for spiritual growth, dowsing is a non-rational tool of the intuition.

  2. Learn how to dowse for underground water. Water is vitally connected to sacred space, healing and many other intangible target dowsing opportunities.

  3. Encourage each individual to trust their own findings the most. This is primary. Listen to others, but ultimately decide for yourself. Gnow the truth within.

  4. Students need to hook up with an Earth Energy dowser that they resonate with (if in doubt, ask your pendulum), and apprentice yourself. Learn how they see it. Ask your rods to show you what your teacher is seeing. If that model works for you, use it, if not completely, add things that work for you. Then, when you go to a sacred site, after greeting the Spirit of the place, use the skills you've learned from your teacher to "see" the energies there.

  5. But, actually, more important to the spiritual dowser , use your dowsing to find your place. Through triangulation, find the specific spot within that site where you will most benefit the site, and the site benefit you. Go there, and pay attention. Do you see simulacra or daysigns? What do you hear? Use all of your senses to pay attention. If you've come with a question, by being in the right place, you might experience an enlightening "coincidence" that will speak directly to your question. It is this kind of experience that the spiritual pilgrim seeks.

As spiritual dowsers, we need to improve our skills at interpreting the messgaes that Nature sends our way along the path.

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Eric Dowsett

When I first offered to contribute to the Mag E-zine Sig asked for something with an Australian flavour, antipodean I think he said. At first I was stumped, energy is energy wherever we may find it, whatever disguise it may be wearing. After a while though I decided to share some experiences with an energy unique to Australia, the Aboriginal. The Aboriginal culture has evolved on this continent over tens of thousands of years for the most part without external interference.

I never set out to explore the sites and pathways of these people when I began re-balancing and restoring harmony to the earth's energies but it has become an integral part of the work that I do. This work involves clearing and restoring balance and harmony to the external and internal environments where and to whatever degree required. As a direct result of my work I have encountered many areas of spiritual and social significance of the Australian Aboriginal.


This country is criss crossed with ley lines laid down or maintained by the Aborigines. I am never too sure which came first, the energy for the ley line or the desire to move from A to B regularly and frequently, thus creating a ley line. We have demonstrated in workshops our ability to create a ley line containing specific information which is later detectable by dowsing. The intensity and frequency of the energy that we put into creating the line give it a strength which will last as long as we support the line by feeding it with our intent. This is exactly what the local Aborigines have done. There are many lines set out across this vast country, some major, many minor.

On a small scale we can find narrow lines connecting a deceased person with the site of death, generally violent, and their spirit home. There are lines the people have used to tread for centuries as they travel the country in their search for food and water, an interesting approach to finding your way through the desert should you get lost. Moving up the scale there are lines known here in Australia as Song Lines. Many people may be familiar with the term Walkabout, when for reasons unknown to the white man, an Aboriginal would just take off for weeks on a personal journey which became known, for want of a better word, as a walkabout.

Song Lines

Through instruction, personal experience and, more recently, discussion with an Aboriginal elder, a guardian of sacred sites, I have been able to confirm a lot of my findings. These ley lines are called Song Lines because the person walking the line sings the line. Simply put, as the person walks the line they sing or chant a particular note. This has a dual purpose, as far as I understand it. Primarily the toning maintains the integrity of the line. Each line holds various pieces of information. The volume and type of information varies between lines. As the person walking the line resonates with the various frequencies held in the ley line they are able to download their own experiences into the line. They also receive information that has been stored in the line, placed there by many predecessors, Those of us who are clairvoyant can often see these aboriginals still walking the line. The keepers or guardians of the line will continue to walk it, maintaining the integrity of the line in spirit. This has proved disconcerting on more than one occasion as these energies move through a bedroom at various times of the night.

The Dowsing Sensation

I remember tuning into one line in particular, unfortunately I did not have the right access code or PIN number, the message I received was more experiential than vocal. I have noticed that as we, particularly dowsers, move into an energy field with an open mind we step into a field of information that we can, depending upon our sensitivities and clarity, read or feel that information. As I connected into this particular ley line, with an open mind, I firstly noticed an echoing inside my head, then a ringing noise in my ears. This sensation became quite intense. People away on my right would only have to whisper and I would hear them clearly yet anyone standing right next to me on my left would have to shout to make themselves heard. This began at 2.30 in the afternoon, at 3.30 I left the site and it was not until 10.30 that evening that the symptoms subsided. A powerful message indeed. Had I been indoctrinated into the culture and given the keepers permission, I may well have interpreted the information differently, we live and learn.

House Cleaning

There have been several occasions where I have been called in to check out the energy of a house where the owners have felt uncomfortable only to find a strong Aboriginal presence. Sometimes this is just a simple line used on a search for food, sometimes a site of a massacre or significant burial place. There have been areas of sacred initiation, corroborree - story telling - meeting places and birthing places. Sacred mens sites and sacred womens sites.

Each location has its own feel and contains information relating to the specific purpose each site was used for. These energy patterns can create havoc for the unsuspecting, generally white, inhabitant. There have been times where the Qi flow, or life force, has been blocked from certain areas so specific a purpose was the land used for any other use seems to run into multiple problems.

I worked for one client whose life seemed to be literally going down the drain, lack of energy, no social visitors, work prospects falling away, health levels fading. Before she had bought that house she had been drawn to the area on many occasions whilst horse riding. When that house came on the market it seemed the perfect opportunity to live in this area she had such an attraction to. After moving in the problems started.

When I looked for energy flow through the house I could not get a dowsing response, I tried to pick up the flow at various points on the land with no luck. I walked across the gateway, still no sign of a good Qi response. When we went back in time, to the previous owners I discovered a strong Qi flow cutting across the front of the property where the original gateway had been. It was not just the moving of the gateway that was causing the problems, there was something directly associated with my client, the new owner. When we began to dowse for possible reasons why the energy was blocked, my client told me that not too far away there was a site where local aboriginals had been gathered on a frequent basis, and driven to their deaths off the bluff. There are many areas like this in Australia, our predecessors had strange ideas about love and compassion.

I received, via the dowsing, a strong call to go to this place and work on clearing the pain and anger held in the site. After this clearing we returned to the house to check the Qi flow and, you guessed it, the energy was flowing freely through the gate and into the house. That client reported back an amazing turn-around in health, and work, her social life exploded a few days after the clearing to the point she was entertaining several guests at any one time. It seemed as though she had some connection with the earlier inhabitants, maybe she was responsible for some of their deaths, and that pattern needed to be healed.

There have been many cases where a project met with disaster after disaster with no obvious reason. I had been asked to work for a private, alternative, school and built up a strong rapport with many of the parents and teachers. There was another school right across the road from the school I had worked for and this other school had gone bankrupt, the buildings empty. My clients needed to expand quickly and considered buying the school across the road as a possible alternative to an expensive building programme.

Feng Shui

Initially I cautioned against this, as any practitioner of Feng Shui, Chinese geomancy, knows, a business that has gone bankrupt is not a good buy. The reasons for the bankruptcy are often embedded in the land or buildings, sometimes the energy of the land can contribute to the bankruptcy.

The school board decided, bankruptcy or not, this was the best solution to their problem. I suggested that I spend sometime on site and see what the problems were, if they did not work on clearing any disturbance they may find both schools suffering financial problems in the future. We already knew that there were problems. Whilst using these premises to run a workshop we had found an absence of Qi flow through the central area of the school. As each of the workshop participants tried to access this area they became over tired or uncomfortable and quickly moved away to recover. This area was the heart of the school, no wonder they had gone out of business.

When I returned to the site to work on clearing and harmonising the energies the Qi was still not moving into this central area. Through dowsing and meditation I learned that this site had been used as a meeting place for male elders and was a powerful energy spot. For a meeting place for elders it was perfect, for a school for children it was a disaster. Some of the school staff felt they could fix whatever problem existed and had put an energy field, presumably of white light, around the entire school. This had the effect of gift wrapping the disturbance but in no way had it cleared any energy of the meeting place. My intent when I work is not to evict long standing tenants, rather to seek a harmonious balance where all can live and work together. The oval shape around which the buildings had been constructed indicated the original builders of the school that went broke felt the energy of the land and must have thought it was a powerful place and so built their school on that very site. Had they, or any one who wants to build anything anywhere, got an energetic survey of the land before developing the land they may have been more successful. Many in our culture still have no awareness of the spirit of the land and develop wherever they can buy cheap and sell expensive, money is the motivation. Yet with awareness money can still be made, perhaps the shifting we are currently experiencing will help a greater awareness move throughout the community.

After having spent an exhausting day and a half on site the energy finally moved freely throughout the schools heart. another day and a half clearing minor disturbances from each of the buildings and the job was finished. Since then I have received a lot of feedback from various parents and teachers about how good the energy of the school now feels, no chance of bankruptcy for the new school.

This is but one example of the damage our lack of awareness can cause. Here in Australia we have only two hundred years of fear based cruelty, in Europe you have many centuries. I see this work, the work of restoring balance and harmony to our environment and the relationship we have with it, ourselves and others as very important at this time, for the dark clouds of ignorance need to be blown away through awareness to let the sun shine on all the children of planet earth. Keep up the good work energy dowsers wherever you are.

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Innovative research by
Glenn Broughton & Steve Page.

When we met at the end of 1996, Steve had been involved in the crop circle phenomena for five years whilst Glenn had spent that time investigating Earth energies and sacred sites, particularly the Avebury area of southern England. Observing Glenn's work with maps and sacred sites Steve would enumerate all the crop circles that had occurred near to these sites over the years. Likewise, as new formations were reported Glenn would comment on the nearby ancient sites or dowsable energy currents in the area. This coming together of two minds from different perspectives but with common interests soon led to the question being asked -"Why do crop formations occur where they do?"

The first thing we noticed was the proximity of formations to the ancient Ridgeway track. There were a striking number of formations along the section from Avebury in Wiltshire to Royston in Hertfordshire but not a lot beyond that point. If this was a trackway between ancient sacred sites, could it be that the correlation was really with the sacred sites, or possibly even with underground currents of Earth energy?

Avebury and Winchester Cathedral

We were very familiar with Earth energy currents around Avebury and Winchester, the two main areas for crop circles. Avebury is halfway along the length of the Michael/Mary line and is at the centre of a huge landscape temple of sacred sites including Silbury Hill, Merlin's Mound, Morgan's Hill, the Sanctuary, West Kennet Long Barrow, Windmill Hill and Avebury Henge itself. The energy currents weave an intricate pattern around the landscape and leave one in no doubt as to the energetic importance of this area. An early commentator comparing Stonehenge to Avebury said it was like a parish church in comparison to a cathedral. Having lived in Avebury village himself, with the Michael energy current running through the back yard, Glenn can testify to the strength of the energy there. We, like many others, believe that this was, and still is, the energy centre of England.

Winchester Cathedral is built on the site of a former stone circle (which had satellites nearby) and straddles a main artery of Earth energy that arises close by in the totally spring-fed Meon valley. A visit to the crypts of the cathedral is a remarkable experience when one is actually able to stand directly in the flow of the very powerful energy current. Winchester stands close by several powerful energetic hilltops marked out for ceremony by our ancient forebears who knew the power in the Earth at this place. This was reflected by the importance attributed to the area by later cultures such as it being the centre of Roman Britain and it becoming the capital city of King Alfred's Britain.

However we were not satisfied that Earth energy or sacred sites were the causative factors for crop circles occurring in an area. Why, for example, are there no crop formations around Glastonbury? It undoubtedly has strong energy currents. It sits just 'downstream', energetically-speaking, from Avebury on the Michael/Mary currents. It has quite as intricate a web of energy patterning, if not more so, than Avebury and can boast the powerful Tor, Chalice Well and Abbey not to mention the landscape temple of the Glastonbury Zodiac spread out in the surrounding countryside of the Somerset Levels. And yet there are virtually never any formations in the vicinity.

As we worked through reports of previous years' formations and as we read more about the ancient trackways we noticed one word kept repeating over and over again- CHALK! The Ridgeway, the Icknield Way, the North and South Downs Ways are all chalk ridges. We knew that East Field was strewn with chalk rocks around its edges and many of the fields which have had several formations over the years have a white dusting in the winter months as the plough brings the chalk to the surface in the newly tilled fields. Could this be what we were looking for? The only way to find out was to plot all the formations for each year onto a geological map of Britain. This we did for the period 1993-1998(up to July 22nd to date). The results of our research are summarised in the tables below.

Fig 1 Fig 2

They basically show that an average of 71% of all UK crop formations each year occur on chalk or its neighbouring greensand, and if we just look at the area south of a line from the Wash to the Bristol Channel (85-90% of all formations are south of this line) the figure increases to 79%. For more detailed results of our research go to our website, Sacred Circle Research

Water IS The Key

These figures are remarkable by any standards. We had to ask the question, what is going on? Why are chalk or greensand attracting crop formations? The answer became apparent when we discovered that this area of chalk is the main aquifer of Southern England - water is the key! This realisation suddenly made sense of all the previous connections we had seen with the trackways, sacred sites and Earth energy currents.

All sacred sites across the world, to our knowledge, are located above underground water- every stone circle, pyramid, temple etc. It is also our contention that our ancestors who built these sites knew this very well and consciously utilised the associated energy. There is a well (now in the 'pool' room of the pub) at the centre of Avebury henge, seismic surveying has recently discovered a previously unknown well near the centre of Stonehenge, and underground water has even been detected in the desert underneath the Great Pyramid. Earth energy currents are also associated with underground water.

Rain falls on the chalk Downs and is soaked up like in a sponge. The water percolates through the porous chalk and through fissures to the impervious clay underlying it and then runs along the clay until it emerges on the surface as a spring. This springline is often in the sandy soils which adjoin the chalk.

Put very simply we are stating that there is probably always underground water present where crop formations occur.

We then replotted all the data for the period 1993-98 onto a Hydrogeological map of England to see how the formations correlated with the aquifers. Our results are shown in the charts below.

Fig 3 Fig 4

The figures this time were even more remarkable. 87% of all formations in England occurred above an aquifer, and this figure rose to nearly 93% for the area of Britain south of a line from the Bristol Channel to the Wash.

Again this isn't the sole cause determining where crop formations occur because there are places with underground aquifers which don't have formations.

Underground Water and the Earth Energies

It appears that a combination of underground water and Earth energy currents is what attracts or allows crop formations to occur in any particular location.

Why should this be so? The answer only becomes apparent when we think in terms of energy. "Pure water will not transmit an electric current...the greater the content of dissolved and suspended matter in the water the greater its capacity to carry an electric current." (see "Living Energies" by Callum Coates.) The water contained in the major aquifers of England are heavily-laden with minerals thus making them highly-conductive conduits for the energy currents coursing through the Earth. Electromagnetic energy, just like electricity, will rapidly make its way to the best conductor around. For example, the chalk Ridgeway attracts the powerful Michael/Mary energy currents between Avebury and Royston.

Furthermore, the chalk is alkaline and this is saturated with water. There is clay which contains a lot of flint (which is silicon or quartz) underlying the chalk and also a thin layer on the top ridges of the chalk Downs. This is acidic. We therefore have an alkaline solution sandwiched on either side by an acidic layer. This attracts and is then activated and 'charged up' by the powerful currents of energy flowing through the ground. This area is like a massive energised whiteboard upon which the Circlemakers are able to apply their 'programmes'. Another aspect which needs further investigation is the fact that water flowing through restrictive channels such as fissures spirals as it does so (look at your bath water disappearing down the drain) and as a consequence, vortexial energy becomes involved. This is an area we are researching further at the moment and which we consider is extremely important.

We would suggest that holy wells and healing waters were revered and used by our forebears because they worked. The waters were potentised by the Earth energy currents which they attracted. These were very localised points of Earth energy and underground water, not on a scale large enough to attract crop formations but displaying the same principles nonetheless.

The Energetic Properties of Flowing Water

We would recommend readers who are interested in the energetic properties of water to read about the work of Victor Schauberger. (see Living Energies by Callum Coates). We all know of the energetic properties of crystal. You wouldn't be able to read this on your computer without them because the silicon chips, which are the basis of all computers, are made from quartz crystal. Virtually our entire technology is based on using crystal. Research from several different sources is now showing that water also has a 'memory' capability, and it is even more powerful and versatile than crystal because it has the added advantage of fluidity or movement. Extending the computer analogy, quartz is to water like a single computer is to the Internet, the fluidity facilitates communication or exchange of information.

Fixing an Energetic Blueprint

Jacques Beneveniste, a French medical scientist made a remarkable discovery. He was scientifically testing homoeopathic remedies for the alleviation of allergy symptoms and discovered that these highly diluted remedies were effective. Then he did an experiment. He placed a small container of a toxin on top of a copper coil which was connected to another coil on top of which was a container of water. After passing an electric current through the coils he discovered that the water, which had never been in physical contact with the toxin, had the same effect on laboratory rats as the toxin itself. For his troubles in making what appears to us to be a fantastically important discovery he had his funding withdrawn and his lab was closed down as the establishment proceeded to destroy his reputation. We are pleased to say that he is continuing his work.

The important point here is that an energetic blueprint can be 'fixed' in water by the application of an electric current. When a crop formation occurs is it that current's energy blueprint, or some might say its 'message', fixed into the water present in the energised aquifer beneath? As the chalk Downs provide the water supply for much of southern England, is a third of the population of this country drinking the 'messages in the fields'? Possibly an even more staggering scenario is in action. If water is such a good conductor of energy/communicator of information, all underground water is connected to springs, streams, rivers, the seas and oceans, and back up rivers and streams on the other side of oceans to their water sources. This would mean that everyone in the world would be drinking the 'crop formations'! According to homoeopathic laws the greater the dilution the greater the potency and so the size of the oceans may act to amplify the potency of the formations energy pattern.

All of this really amounts to the need to look behind the physical appearance of reality to what is really happening energetically. Whatever is the motivation and cause of crop formations, whether it be Gaia speaking to us, an extraterrestrial consciousness, or even our collective human superconsciousness operating through our dreamtime, they are an energetic phenomenon which needs an energised plot of land with which to interact. We believe that the same applies to sacred sites. E.g. stones with certain energetic properties, mainly because of crystalline content, were placed where they were and in the patterns they were because of the energetics that were set up between the structure and the land at that particular point. Furthermore, this still happens today. Something happens to you when you visit a site, and this doesn't need to be a recognised sacred site or crop circle. And this is not a passive experience but is dependent upon your attitude and intent which after all can be expressed as emissions of energy from your 'aura'. The implications of this are truly Earth changing, it challenges us to take full responsibility for not only our actions but also our thoughts if we want to change the world. This discussion will be the topic of an article in the next issue of this MAG E-zine.

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